- Hybrid PV Inverter Test Solution
- Inspection System
- Automatic Loading/Unloading System
- c-Si Solar Cell Tester
- Automatic Optical Inspection System
- TEC Controller
- Thermal Data Logger
Solar Wafer Diffusion Load/Unload Test System
- Low Breakage rate
- High Throughput
- Flex picker robot transfer
- Surface Inspection：Option
- Loader: Quartz Boat
- Unload：Manz Box / Cassette(option)
Furnace tube process is commonly used for wafer phosphorous diffusion . Chroma is not only providing short boat but also long boat for diffusion process loader/Unloder system to our customers. High speed flex picker robots are used on wafer transfer . Chroma provide the lower breakage, high throughout and low cost loader and unloader system in diffusion process and met our customer all of diffusion process function requirement.
c-Si Solar Cell Tester
- Measurements: Eff, Pmpp, Impp, Vmpp, Isc, Voc, FF, Rshunt, Rs, Irev.
- Full four-quadrant source for both light forward/reverse & dark forward/reverse test
- Class AAA+ solar simulator
- Versatile system software and user editable test sequences
- Low stress probe
- PV cell sorter integration
I-V test is the most important test for PV cell/module manufacturing because the measured power rating or efficiency of the cell or module directly affect the selling price of the product. Therefore, highly accurate and repeatable I-V test result is not only for quality issue but also for business issue.
However, PV cell I-V testing represents several technical challenges; therefore, it's extremely hard to achieve stable and accurate test results even if class AAA type of solar simulator is used. Those challenges include:
- Spectral mismatch correction
- Minimize impact of non
- Simultaneous measurement to avoid error caused by temporal instability of irradiance intensity
- Temperature correction or control to STC or desired temperature
- Low stress probing to avoid cell breakage
- Maximize probe
- contact repeatability & minimize probing shadow
Chroma 58301 c-Si Solar Cell (Crystalline Silicon) Tester is ideal for both RD & in-line production (see Chroma 3720) application. Using Wacom® class AAA+ solar simulator, comprehensive irradiance/temperature correction technique and probing system, Chroma 58301 c-Si Solar Cell Tester achieves the highest test repeatability and measurement accuracy for most demanding customers.
Advanced TEC Controller
Model 54100 series
- Bidirectional driving with 150W (24V/8A),300W (27V/12A) or 800W (40V/20A) output
- Filtered PWM output with > 90% driving power efficiency while maintaining linear driving with current ripples < 20 mA
- Temperature reading and setting range -70 to 250℃ with 0.01℃ resolution and 0.3℃ absolute accuracy
- Short term stability (1 hour) ±0.01℃ and long term stability ±0.05℃ with optimal PID control
- Feature true TEC large signal PID auto tune for best control performance
- 2 T-type thermocouple inputs, one for control feedback and the other for monitor and offset, providing versatile control modes
- RS232, USB2.0, LAN communication port for PC remote operation and thermal data recording
- Powerful and user-friendly PC program available
- Perfect matching all Chroma designed temperature controlled platforms
A thermoelectric cooler (TEC) module is a solid state device which can control heat flux using current. It is very useful in small scale temperature control, providing fast temperature response and ultra-high temperature stability. TEC temperature control equipment can also be very compact and green. No mechanical moving or hot/cold material consumption is needed.
Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers have an excellent temperature monitoring engine, which allows 2 T-type thermocouple inputs. The cold junction of the engine is internally stabilized up to 0.001℃, for that 0.01℃ temperature resolution and control stability can be achieved. The TEC driver uses a filtered PWM architecture, which obtains high driving power efficiency as ordinary PWM drivers have, but smoothens the current modulation to a DC-like output. It's very important for electro-magnetic sensitive measurements.
Another important feature of Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers is the true TEC PID auto tune function. Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers have unique auto tune algorithm to guarantee the best control and temperature response. Stability down to the temperature resolution, which is 0.01℃, is regularly achieved regardless the size and geometry of thermal platforms.
High TEC driving capability is another merit of Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers. Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers deliver 150W, 300W, 800W for high power TEC driving. More TEC driving power means wider temperature range, faster temperature response, and larger platform applications. For comparable accuracy and stability, Chroma offers one of the best TEC driving power to price ratio in the market.
Excellent Thermal response, temperature precision, and control stability
TEC module is a bi-directional heat pump controlled by current. So a temperature control system with TEC modules can reach temperatures higher or lower than ambient. Compared with traditional temperature control methods, this is compact, fast responding, and using only one controller.
Though there are many special features for TEC modules, users still need good TEC controllers to get all the benefit. Chroma's Advanced TEC Controller is specially designed for optimal per formance of TEC temperature cont rol. Changing temperature from one to another can be very fast. There is no overshoot or minimal overshoot approaching the target temperature. When thermal perturbation happens, even for a 100W on/off perturbation, Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers can often reduce the temperature variation to less than 1℃ within few seconds. As temperature stability is concerned, Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers offer 0.01℃ stability in most cases.
Using Chroma's TEC methord, rising and falling of temperature is about 5~60℃ per minute.
High Driving Capability
There were many small output power TEC controllers in the market mainly for small devices and small scale lab tests. As technologies grow, higher TEC driving power than before is demanded in many new applications. For example, testing solar cells larger than 4 inch squares from -20℃ to 85℃ requires more than 100W TEC driving power, not to mention the thermal load of sunlight can be 30W or more. High power-LEDs for lighting have great concerns about their thermal property. 30 W-LED module testing from -20℃ to 150℃ also demands high TEC driving power.
Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers can deliver 150W/300W/800W TEC driving power, satisfying needs from small to large platforms. In typical applications, many pieces of high power TEC modules can be driven by a controller output. For the cost of every driving power, Chroma offers very competitive solutions.
High temperature accuracy and resolution
TEC controllers using thermocouple in market usually have accuracy about 1℃ and resolution 0.1℃. Thi s i s not good enough for many applications. For example, rating solar cell power efficiency needs temperature accuracy much less than 1℃. Phase change of some material can happen within 0.1℃ or less. Some biochemical process can be ver y sensitive to a critical temperature. Thermal resistance measurement of heat pipes often results in a temperature deviation much less than 1℃. Some high resolution TEC controllers are using different types of temperature sensors, such as RTD, temperature IC, or thermistors. Unfortunately, these temperature sensors can have trouble for metal contact, or too bulky to measure the point of interest.
Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers are thermocouple based and with temperature accuracy* 0.3℃ and resolution down to 0.01℃. Users can take advantage of thermocouple for easy measurement setup, while maintain high accuracy and resolution. This means users can achieve test results with high repeatability, high accuracy, and therefore high confidence.
True large-signal PID / auto tune for TEC control
PID control is an important feature for a good controller. The PID parameters basically describe the dynamic response of a system and can be very different from one to another. It does not guarantee a successful control unless proper PID parameters are set. It is very painful and time consuming to search for PID parameters manually. So an advanced controller should feature PID auto tune function.
Many other TEC controllers use a small signal and one-directional temperature transient to find PID parameters. This auto tune method is OK for heater only temperature control, but not always successful for TEC control. In order to truly match the thermal response of a TEC control system, Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers use a largesignal and bi-directional driving method for PID auto tune. This proprietary method results in the superb temperature control behavior, which is fast, precise, and very stable. While some other TEC controllers require a set of PID parameters for every 20℃ interval, Chroma's Advanced TEC Controllers need only a set of optimal PID parameters (usually auto tuned at 40~50℃) to cover all operation from -70 to 250℃.
High Efficiency Standard Platforms
There are numerous TEC platforms worked with Chroma Advanced TEC Controllers, including standard platforms for LEDs, solar cells, e-paper, burn-in, and so on. Each one shown below can reach wide temperature range with typical stability 0.01℃.
Thermal/Multi-Function Data Logger
Model 51101/51101C series
- Models with 1, 8, and 64 channels on-line data recording.
- Multi-sets linked to a PC for hundreds of channels are doable
- Support B, E, J, K, N, R, S, and T type thermal couples with ITS-90 defined temperature range
- Individual channel cold junction compensation withTemperature resolution up to 0.01°C, error down to ±(0.01% of reading+0.5°C) (51101 series)
- VA-480 voltage adaptor :
Voltage range ±480VDC ;
Resolution 1mV ;
Accuracy 0.1% of reading+1mV
- VA-10 voltage adaptor :
Voltage range ±10VDC ;
Resolution 100uV ;
Accuracy 0.05% of reading+500uV
- 1000VDC channel to channel isolation, full protection for testing points with charge and guarantee for accurate measurements
- Thermal couple open circuit detection
- PC-based operation with powerful software for recording and analyzing data
- 1 and 8 channel models are USB powered. No battery or external power supply is required
It is a general requirement to record temperatures, voltages, currents, and many physics quantities during research, product development, productions, and quality assurance processes. The number of record channels can be a simple one to several complicated set of hundreds. Thermal/multi-function data loggers are prefect solutions to serve for these measurement and tracking needs.
There are several measurement products in the market to perform such a largescale and extensive time varying recording. Some are expensive, some are limited in accuracy or resolution, and some have low immunity to interference. Chroma thermal/multi-function data loggers are by far the most cost-effective solutions for versatility, accuracy, stability, and interference immunity among this category.
Chroma thermal/multi-function data loggers measure temperatures, voltages, and currents with high accuracy and resolutions. For example, they support 8 types of thermocouple measurement with ITS-90 defined temperature range at 0.5˚C accuracy and 0.01˚C resolution*, while most data loggers in the market are at 1 ˚C accuracy and 0.1˚C resolution*. Chroma loggers are with 1000VDC channel to channel isolation, which means they can attach thermocouple to objects with high electricity, such as batteries, solar cells, working PCB, etc., and still get correct data. Many competitors are just malfunctioned or even damaged in those cases. Data retrieve in Chroma loggers are in a parallel architecture, while most of competitors use a sequential multiplexing method. This means data rate per channel is quick and constant for Chroma loggers, while others become much slower when number of channels is bigger.
Using Chroma thermal/multi-function data loggers, customers get confidence in measured data and high Performance/Cost ratio. Most of all, we can help in certain cases that our competitors fail, and only Chroma succeeds.