Hydraulic Bench

 

The Cussons Hydraulic Bench provides the basic services for pumping and volumetric measurement of water supply. Various optional modules are available to form a comprehensive laboratory facility which enables a detailed Mechanics of Fluids Experimental Course to be followed. The equipment is designed to provide a clear visual appreciation of hydraulic principles and has been featured by BBC Television on the Open University Mechanics of Fluids course.

Cavitation Demonstration Unit

 

This compact and cost effective unit provides experimental capabilities to study the cavitation effect including observation of the relationship between cavitation and temperature and observation of the relationships between discharge, velocity and pressure.

Water Flow In Pipes and Fittings Experiments

 

The flow of fluids in closed conduits or pipes is a major topic in mechanical, civil and chemical engineering and is of interest in areas of biology (e.g. blood flow) and medicine (e.g. drip delivery). we offers three experiments, mountable on the Hydraulic Bench:

Francis Turbine, Pelton Wheel & Kaplan Turbine

 

This range of turbines provides experiments to study reaction, impulse & axial turbines. These can be conveniently mounted on the Hydraulic Bench. The experiments are performed by pumping water through the turbines with a variable flow rate and using a drum brake system with spring force balance.

Orifices Studies

 

Study of liquid flow through an orifice illustrates the need for a semi-empirical approach. Cussons offers two related experiments – each with multiple orifices – which may be mounted on the Hydraulic Bench:

Open Channel Weirs

 

In open channels weirs are commonly used to either regulate or to measure the volumetric flow rate.We offers the following experiments (with multiple weir plates) which may be mounted on the Hydraulic Bench:

Water Flow Measurement Range

 

These four different experiments in comparative flow measurement use various techniques operating on the principle of head loss, impulse or velocity

Bernoulli’s Experiment

 

This experiment demonstrates the principles of conservation of mass and conservation of energy and may also be used to examine the onset of turbulence in an accelerating stream of water.

Hydraulic Ram

 

A hydraulic ram helps to illustrate the principal by which water may be obtained from low lying water sources when no electrical supply is available to power a pump.

Impact of jets

 

This apparatus enables experiments on the reaction of a jet of water upon vanes of various forms (fixed vane, a cone shape or a hemispherical) to be carried out and demonstrates the relationship between the forces exerted on the model and the rate of change of momentum of the jet stream

Free & Forced Vortex Apparatus

 

The creation of vortices is a common engineering and natural phenomenon worthy of study. This apparatus may be used to plot the shape of free/forced vortices by measurement of surface profile co-ordinates.

Water flow measurement

 

This apparatus can be used on the Hydraulic Bench or used as free-standing apparatus in conjunction with a low pressure water supply. The static head at various points in the flow path is measured enabling students to analyse the behaviour of water flowing through a sudden enlargement, transparent venturi meter, an orifice plate and a rotameter.

Hydrostatics Experiments

 

We offers three related experiments mountable on the Hydraulic Bench:

 

Hydrostatics bench

 

As an independent and self-contained unit, the Hydrostatics Bench enables the students to understand the fundamental properties of non-moving fluids. Experimental coverage includes density and relative density; variation of pressure with head; Hare’s Tube; Pascal’s Law; viscosity; capillarity; surface tension; Archimedes Principle; use of vernier level gauge and the hydraulic press.

Hydrostatics Set

 

This compact set of hydrostatics apparatus enables students to investigate the fundamental properties of non-moving fluids.

Osborne Reynolds Apparatus

 

This Osborne Reynolds experiment may be used to investigate laminar/streamline flow, turbulent flow and the transition between these two regimes by observation of an injected dye line. It may also be used to determine the upper and lower Critical Velocities and Reynolds Number.

Series and Parallel Pump Test Set

 

This unit incorporates two pumps which enables investigations of series and parallel operation of identical pumps running at the same or different speeds.

Friction Loss in Pipes & Fittings

 

This apparatus enables students to investigate flow through smooth and roughened pipes under laminar or turbulent flow conditions and also flow through fittings and valves. Various methods of flow measurement are covered including the variable area flowmeter (rotameter), venturi, orifice plate and pitot static tube.

 

Flow channel

 

These 2.5m and 5m units provide channels with adjustable slope and transparent acrylic sides for full visibility of the flow characteristics. Test models plus an inclinometer and surface profile measuring instrument are used to investigate the flow of water along an open channel and to verify the Chézy equation and Mannings friction factor.

Additional experimental equipment provided with the 5m channel includes a pitot-static tube, dam spillway, Ogee (i.e. overflow) weir with manometer, Crump weir and Parshall flume.

Advanced flow channels

 

Two types of larger flow channel are offered for flexible semi-custom experimental configurations. Either option may be used as a low speed circulating water channel for sedimentation work, at higher flow rates for hydrodynamics work or with wave and wind attachments for coastal engineering studies. The channels come in the following sizes and are constructed in modular sections and may be specified to a maximum length of 20 metres.

Miniature Flow Channel

 

This apparatus can be used to investigate the flow of water along an open channel and to visualise the flow around objects in its path through the injection of ink. It includes triangular hump section and an undershot weir and demonstration of approximate ‘Specific energy/Depth’ relationships.

Hele Shaw Apparatus

 

This two dimensional potential flow apparatus is based upon the well-known Hele Shaw experimental method. It provides a parallel laminar water flow field to allow study of low Reynolds number flow patterns around submerged models representing cylinders, aerofoils, bluff bodies, knife edge weirs and through passages such as valve bodies and nozzles etc.

Water Flow Visualisation Apparatus

 

This is a self-contained bench top unit comprising a high-walled flow channel incorporating a detachable glass front panel, light source, inlet tank with removable flow straightener, level control sluice gate, outlet tank, electrically driven circulating pump, interconnecting pipework plus flow control and drain valves.

Pipe Surge and Water Hammer Apparatus

 

This equipment comprises two stainless steel pipes to study water hammer and surge which is a common phenomenon. This apparatus is provided with software oscilloscope facility for display on user supplied PC.

Permeability Apparatus

 

This unit enables students to investigate the fundamental concepts of soil permeability within a compact indoor laboratory facility to solve problems such as the seepage of water under dams, the abstraction of water from wells and the hydrostatic forces exerted on bridge foundations in the real world.

Hydrology Apparatus

 

This self-contained unit enables students to investigate a range of hydrological phenomena within a compact indoor laboratory facility. It allows the study of basin hydrology cycles; flood and run off hydrographs; effects on civil constructions (bridges and dams); interaction of adjacent wells and elementary fluvial processes such as erosion on hillsides and river meander.

Sediment Transport Apparatus

 

This relatively compact unit enables students to investigate the full range of forms that arise in a mobile bed as the flow rate and/or slope are increased. The movement of sediment around structures may be examined for scouring and blockage etc.

Network of Pipes Apparatus

 

This apparatus enables students to conduct a range of experiments on a system of interconnecting series and parallel pipe networks and fluid distribution systems. The unit enables students to obtain a full understanding of the factors affecting flow distribution and the behaviour of pipe network systems.

Francis Turbine Set

 

This is a self-contained experiment designed to enable students to study the basic characteristics of the Francis Turbine. It demonstrates the turbine characteristics (torque, power and efficiency) at different conditions and pressure, torque and flow rate are measured and indicated.

Multi-Pump Test Rig

 

Detailed investigations on both rotodynamic and positive displacement pumps may be performed on this multipurpose test bench which is designed to be self-contained requiring only a single phase electrical supply. 

Air Flow

 

Air Flow Bench

This Air Flow Bench consists of a welded steel frame mounted on castors and provides two work surfaces for experiments and integral storage space. A tangential fan (i.e. fitted with a narrow chord centrifugal impellor), directly driven from a single phase induction motor, provides the necessary air flow for experiments. The fan is capable of providing a flow of 500 litres/second at a static pressure rise of 800 Pascals.

Flow Measurement Apparatus

 

To introduce the student to the study of air flow measurement using various types of measuring devices based upon the specifications given in BS848 and BS1042.

Bernoulli’s Apparatus

 

To visually demonstrate the interchange between static and dynamic pressure as air flows through a duct of variable cross sectional area

Flow through a Bend

 

To investigate the pressure distribution along the inner and outer walls of a bend in ductwork of rectangular cross-section.

Flow in Pipes

 

To gain a practical appreciation of various topics related to air flow in pipes.

Axial & Centrifugal Fan Demonstration Units

 

The units have been developed to study the characteristics of Axial and Centrifugal fans enabling a wide range of experimentation capabilities related with flow velocity profile in the pipe aspiration, difference between static pressure, dynamic and total, characteristic of axial and centrifugal curves or axial and centrifugal fan spin.

Speed is displayed digitally and a combination of pressure transducers enables the measurement of working pressure in order to study the fan characteristics in real time. Pressure taps are sealed to prevent leaks that distort the readings taken.

Two Dimensional Wind Tunnel

 

This is designed for use with either the Cussons Air Flow Bench or P3240 Fan Test Stand and enables students to investigate pressure distributions around cylinder, aerofoil and other models. Lift and drag forces acting upon models may also be determined with P3231. Data acquisition is also available for this equipment.

Two Component Balance

 

This is a unique system employing vertical and horizontal balance beams to provide independent measurements of lift and drag forces.

Boundary Layer Experiment

 

This experiment is used to determine the thickness of the ‘boundary layer’ where fluid flow meets a stationary surface and investigate the velocity profile within this layer.

Smoke generator

 

This equipment produces smoke filaments of adequate density to enable flow patterns around various objects to be demonstrated.

Turbulent Jet Apparatus

 

This apparatus demonstrates the general behaviour of a jet of air emitted from a circular pipe into free surroundings and helps to investigate air jet velocity at various distances from the emission point in order to determine both velocity and momentum profiles.

Fan Test Stand

 

This has been designed to demonstrate the capability of a centrifugal fan unit in accordance with BS848. It may also be used as the base unit for a series of additional experiments involving air flow in pipes, heat transfer, aerodynamics and compressible flow studies.

Subsonic Open Circuit Wind Tunnel

 

This is a self-contained facility comprising the tunnel with a three-component balance system (lift, drag and pitching moment) and an air speed indicator. The unit enables students to investigate the pressure distributions around and the forces experienced by aerofoils, cylinders and other models and also to study boundary layers.

Supersonic Wind Tunnel

 

This is an open, continuously operating supersonic wind tunnel to investigate pressure distribution along a convergent-divergent nozzle, pressure losses, demonstration of the boundary layers Schlieren method, observation of flow patterns around the aerofoils and much more.